Millions of people are affected by vision loss or impairment and require glasses, surgery, or may even be blind. While there are many factors that affect vision, take a look at this list of the most common causes of vision loss.

Glaucoma

The optic nerve transfers visual information from your the cells in your eye to your brain. It translates colors, images and visuals from the back of the eye and is what allows you to see properly. Glaucoma is a common disease that can damage the optic nerve, creating vision loss. This means that there’s high pressure fluid in the eye that causes cells to die and compresses the optic nerve.

Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD)

The central part of the retina is the part of your eye that makes your vision clear, and that can be affected by Age-Related Macular Degeneration (AMD). The two forms of AMD are wet, which means there’s a growth in the vein under the macula, and dry, which means macula thins and causes blurred vision over time.

Cataract

As the leading cause of blindness in the world, cataracts cloud the eye lens and causes the loss of vision. Surgically, cataracts can be treated and removed, however cost and insurance are major factors. Although cataracts are more common in older ages, they can actually occur at any age, including birth.

Refractive Errors

If you’ve ever been to the eye doctor and were prescribed glasses, that’s because you have a refractive error. Refractive errors are more commonly known as nearsightedness, farsightedness or distorted vision at all distances. Contact lenses, eye glasses, and sometimes surgery can correct this cause of vision loss.

Abnormalities

Two common causes of vision loss are strabismus and amblyopia. Strabismus is the imbalanced positioning of two eyes. It can cause the eyes to cross or turn out which creates a lack of coordination between the eyes. Without coordination the eyes can’t focus on one point at a time. Strabismus can lead to amblyopia.

Amblyopia is what you probably know as a “lazy eye”. This is caused from a visual impairment where the eye and the brain are not connecting properly and vision in that eye is reduced. It’s the leading cause of vision loss in children which can be treated early on with glasses and eye drops. The treatment of amblyopia has better results in younger people under the age of 17.